Directional drilling

Directional drilling

Directional drilling is a vital technique in petroleum industry. It has mainly three different profiles. The first configuration is "Build and Hold" where the well is drilled vertically until it reaches the "kick off point (KOP)". Then, the angle is built up to reach the required inclination. In the tangential section, this inclination is maintained reaching the target zone. This technique is mainly used to reach a target zone with low depth and a huge horizontal displacement. The second configuration is "Build Hold and Drop" which is similar to the first type, except in the tangential section, where the inclination angel is reduced until it reaches the target zone. This technique is used when the target zone has a huge depth with low horizontal displacement. The third configuration is "Deep…
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Slips

Slips

Slips are used to grip the drill string or casing during connection and tripping. They contain dies and inserts allowing them to grip the outside diameter of the pipe. They fit around the pipes while lowering them and go into the opening within the rotary table. Slips, that handle larger diameters of pipes "Casings", do not go into the rotary table, but are put on the top of the rig floor. This type of slips are called spiders. Some slips are ordinary or without any powering system. Others are operated by powering systems "using spring coil or compressed air". Automatic slips are a new technology of slips which are operated without the Roughnecks. There are many types of slips such as drill pipe rotary slips, drill collar slips, drill pipe…
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P.D.M

P.D.M

The P.D.M is one of the two kinds of the downhole motors. The Positive Displacement Motor is a hydraulic motor. Its pumping system depends on the Moineau principle to rotate the bit. The main four components are: A) By-pass valve (dump sub) :- This valve allows the pass of the drilling fluids to the hole while tripping in, besides the drainage of the fluids while tripping out. The common type is the spring piston valve which allows the mud to flow through the tool under pressure. When the downward pressure is removed, the spring opens a channel of flow to make the fluid extract through the annulus. B) Motor section:- This part depends on the reverse application of the Moineau principle. It consists of a rubber stator and a steel…
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Tricone drilling bit

Here is a close-up view of a rotating tricone drilling bit. Observe that each of the cones rotate independently of the other. Lets take the example of a fan, each of the blades of a fan rotate together in one direction. But each of the cone of a tricone bit rotate in different directions and with different speeds. Cone 1 is slightly faster than cone 2 and cone 2 is slightly faster than cone 3. BIT
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PVT

PVT

PVT Report includes many important properties of the reservoir fluid. One of the most important properties is Oil formation volume factor(Bo). Oil Formation Volume Factor (FVF) "known as Bo" is simply the ratio between the volume of oil at Standard conditions in "STB" to the volume of oil at pressure and temperature of the reservoir in "bbl". The general behavior of Bo,as shown in the below figure, appears in certain types of reservoirs such as Undersaturated Depletion Drive Reservoir. The value of Bo is always greater than 1 due to the existence of dissolved gas in the oil within the formation. Bo increases with decreasing the pressure as far as Pr is greater than Bubble Point Pressure "Pb" due to the expansion of the dissolved gas. However, Bo decreases with…
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