Definition: It is a geophysical surveying method used to develop images of the rock layers below Earth’s surface.
Background information: Seismic surveying was first carried out in 1920 as a development of the Earthquake Seismology surveying method.
Scientific principle: Seismic surveying is based on the difference in time taken by the sound waves (Seismic waves) to be reflected and refracted due to passing through different types of layers (rocks) having different velocities. There are mainly two types of seismic surveys to be used and interpreted: Seismic Refraction Interpretation & Seismic Reflection Interpretation.
The below figure shows the main steps of Seismic from Acquisition to Seismograph recorded according to time, then processed to more identifiable and meaningful.